Einstein , His theory is empirically a posteriori founded from observation of how matter 'pushes' other matter around thus his 'representation' of matter as spherical force fields. As Ernst Mach insistently pointed out, the Newtonian theory is unsatisfactory in the following respect: if one considers motion from the purely descriptive, not from the causal, point of view, it only exists as relative motion of things with respect to one another.

It compelled Newton to invent a physical space in relation to which acceleration was supposed to exist. This introduction ad hoc of the concept of absolute space, while logically unacceptionable, nevertheless seems unsatisfactory. Considered logically, concepts are free creations of the human intelligence, tools of thought, which are to serve the purpose of bringing experiences into relation with each other, so that in this way they can be better surveyed. The attempt to become conscious of the empirical sources of these fundamental concepts should show to what extent we are actually bound to these concepts.

## On the History of Unified Field Theories

In this way we become aware of our freedom to create new concepts. Descartes argued somewhat on these lines: space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus there is no space without bodies and hence no empty space. It appears to me, therefore, that the formation of the concept of the material object must precede our concepts of time and space.

Metaphysics, as a true description of Reality, must be based on a priori causes AND these must be united back to one common thing that causes and connects the many things matter. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion is founded on the a priori existence of One thing, Space and its properties as a wave-medium, that One thing, Space, must first exist for Many things, matter to be able to exist and move about in an interconnected manner as reality shows.

This explains why the fields were continuous, as many trillions of discrete standing wave interactions blend together into a continuous force. Thus the continuous field can never describe the real standing wave interactions of matter, as Einstein came to realize. The great stumbling block for the field theory lies in the conception of the atomic structure of matter and energy.

For the theory is fundamentally non-atomic in so far as it operates exclusively with continuous functions of space, in contrast to classical mechanics whose most important element, the material point, in itself does justice to the atomic structure of matter.

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The special and general theories of relativity, which, though based entirely on ideas connected with the field-theory, have so far been unable to avoid the independent introduction of material points, … the continuous field thus appeared side by side with the material point as the representative of physical reality. This dualism remains even today disturbing as it must be to every orderly mind.

The Maxwell equations in their original form do not, however, allow such a description of particles, because their corresponding solutions contain a singularity. Theoretical physicists have tried for a long time , therefore, to reach the goal by a modification of Maxwell's equations. These attempts have, however, not been crowned with success. What appears certain to me, however, is that, in the foundations of any consistent field theory the particle concept must not appear in addition to the field concept. The whole theory must by based solely on partial differential equations and their singularity-free solutions.

As Wolff explains see Quantum Theory , the equation for a scalar spherical wave give rise to a finite wave-amplitude at the wave-center consistent with observation whereas spherical vector electromagnetic fields tend to infinity as the radius tends to zero and there are no vector e-m solutions in spherical coordinates!

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While Einstein correctly rejected the point 'particle' concept of matter, he assumed that Motion only applied to 'particles' a common error! The error is twofold; firstly, he did not consider the wave Motion of Space itself, and secondly, he should have realized that to measure forces we must first measure the change in Motion of a particle, thus Motion is a priori to forces i. We now realize that neither the 'Particle' nor the continuous electromagnetic force 'Field' is a complete description of Reality thus we must reject both the 'Particle' and the 'Field' , and what remains is Motion.

Hence we can now clearly see both Einstein's error and the true path left to explore - the study of Space as a wave medium for wave Motion - and that the Spherical Wave Motion of Space explains both the 'particle' wave-center and 'forces' change in velocity of In-Waves, which changes the location of the Wave-Center.

Mach, in the nineteenth century, was the only one who thought seriously of the elimination of the concept of space, in that he sought to replace it by the notion of the totality of the instantaneous distances between all material points. He made this attempt in order to arrive at a satisfactory understanding of inertia. Because we only observe the motion of matter relative to all the other matter in the universe, thus Einstein thought that matter, rather than Space, must be the central perspective for representing Reality.

Thus Einstein's Relativity is empirically a posteriori founded from observing the motion of matter relative to other matter. The Metaphysics of Space and Motion is founded on the a priori fact that Space is first necessary for matter to be able to exist and move about. Einstein is empirically correct, and at the same time this was his error because Metaphysics and thus Reality is not founded on empirical observations. In reality there is no motion of matter, there is only the spherical wave-motion of Space, and the changing location of the wave-center gives the 'illusion' of the motion of matter 'particles'.

And so instead of absolute places and motions, we use relative ones; and that without any inconvenience in common affairs; but in Philosophical disquisitions, we ought to abstract from our senses, and consider things themselves, distinct from what are only sensible measures of them. Newton , Further, Lorentz's assumption of an Absolute Space is the foundation for the Lorentz transformations and thus for Einstein's Relativity.

I cannot but regard the ether, which can be the seat of an electromagnetic field with its energy and its vibrations, as endowed with a certain degree of substantiality, however different it may be from all ordinary matter.

## The Unity of Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Lorentz , The Theory of the Electron, The electromagnetic fields are not states of a medium, and are not bound down to any bearer, but they are independent realities which are not reducible to anything else. Albert Einstein, Leiden Lecture, In other words, is there an ether which carries the field; the ether being considered in the undulatory state, for example, when it carries light waves? The question has a natural answer: Because one cannot dispense with the field concept, it is preferable not to introduce in addition a carrier with hypothetical properties.

Once we realise that the particle and the continuous field it generates are both merely ideas, human approximations to reality, then we solve these problems. The idea of the field theory of matter misled Einstein, and yet Einstein also realised that there must somehow be a Space that interconnects matter. Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether.

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According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time measuring-rods and clocks , nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time.

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The idea of motion may not be applied to it. He tried and failed throughout his life to unite these two fields into one and to remove the 'particle' concept from them. But the idea that there exist two structures of space independent of each other, the metric-gravitational and the electromagnetic, was intolerable to the theoretical spirit.

We are prompted to the belief that both sorts of field must correspond to a unified structure of space. Einstein, We can now unite these two fields by demonstrating how they are both caused by the properties of Space, i. The concept of the 'curvature of space' is a mathematical construction of Einstein's general relativity. But the path of general relativity was thornier than one might suppose, because it demanded the abandonment of Euclidean geometry. This is what we mean when we talk of the 'curvature of space'.

The fundamental concepts of the 'straight line', the 'plane', etc.

Further, the four dimensional space-time continuum simply means that three spatial dimensions and a time dimension are required to define the motion of bodies and the path of light in three dimensional Space. The non-mathematician is seized by a mysterious shuddering when he hears of 'four-dimensional' things, by a feeling not unlike that awakened by thoughts of the occult. And yet there is no more common-place statement than that the world in which we live is a four-dimensional space-time continuum. Space is a three-dimensional continuum. Similarly, the world of physical phenomena is naturally four dimensional in the space-time sense.

For it is composed of individual events, each of which is described by four numbers, namely, three space co-ordinates x, y, z, and the time co-ordinate t. The inseparability of time and space emerged in connection with electrodynamics, or the law of propagation of light. With the discovery of the relativity of simultaneity, space and time were merged in a single continuum in a way similar to that in which the three dimensions of space had previously merged into a single continuum.

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